2023 Vol. 37, No. 2
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), the main family member of mitochondrial deacetylase, targets the majority of substrates controlling mitochondrial biogenesis via lysine deacetylation and modulates important cellular functions such as energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species production and clearance, oxidative stress, and aging. Deletion of SIRT3 has a deleterious effect on mitochondrial biogenesis, thus leading to the defect in mitochondrial function and insufficient ATP production. Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics leads to excessive mitochondrial biogenesis, dampening mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in several diseases related to aging, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) launches mitochondrial biogenesis through activating nuclear respiratory factors. These factors act on genes, transcribing and translating mitochondrial DNA to generate new mitochondria. PGC1α builds a bridge between SIRT3 and mitochondrial biogenesis. This review described the involvement of SIRT3 and mitochondrial dynamics, particularly mitochondrial biogenesis in aging-related diseases, and further illustrated the role of the signaling events between SIRT3 and mitochondrial biogenesis in the pathological process of aging-related diseases.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are characterized by a covalent closed-loop structure with an absence of both 5′ cap structure and 3′ polyadenylated tail. Numerous studies have found that circRNAs play an important role in various diseases and have a variety of biological regulatory mechanisms, including acting as microRNA sponges, interacting with proteins, modulating the expression of related genes and translating into peptides or proteins. CircRNAs have also been used as biomarkers for a number of diseases, which could improve clinical practice. This review summarizes the most recent advances in biogenesis and knowledge of the biological functions of circRNAs as well as the related bioinformatics databases. We specifically describe developments in understanding of circRNA functions in the field of environmental exposure-induced diseases. Finally, we focus on potential clinical implications of circRNAs to facilitate their clinical transformation into disease treatment.
Lead (Pb) and furan are toxic agents, and persistent exposure may impair human and animal reproductive function. We therefore explored the effects of Pb and furan on male rat hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genomic integrity. We found that co-exposure to Pb and furan reduced the activities of testicular function enzymes, endogenous antioxidant levels, total sulfhydryl group, and glutathione. Sperm abnormality, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and p53 expression were increased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with furan and Pb. Typical rat gonad histoarchitecture features were also damaged. Conclusively, co-exposure to Pb and furan induced male reproductive function derangement by decreasing the antioxidant defences in rats, increasing abnormalities in spermatozoa morphology, and reducing reproductive hormone in circulation. These pathophysiological alterations, if persistent, might provide a permissive environment for potentiating reproductive dysfunction and infertility.
2023, 37(2): 115-124. doi: 10.7555/JBR.36.20220151
An increasing number of studies demonstrated that alcohol vapor chamber is an effective way to model physical signs of alcohol use disorders. Although researchers are developing different vapor chambers to study chronic alcohol exposure model worldwide, few studies build and modify their own vapor chambers in China. Here, we designed and established an alcohol vapor chamber system for small animals. We described a paradigm showing how to control and monitor alcohol concentration in whole system. The vapor chamber system with several advantages including accommodating up to ten standard mouse cages. Furthermore, the system was tested by evaluating the blood alcohol concentration and neuron injury in mice. Importantly, the alcohol withdrawal after vapor exposure caused motor coordination impairment, anxiolytic- and depression-like behavior. Finally, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated glutamatergic transmissions in the medial prefrontal cortex was changed after alcohol vapor exposure-induced behaviors. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents between control and alcohol groups were not different, suggesting that alcohol exposure-induced behaviors are associated with the change in NMDAR response. Taken together, the new alcohol vapor chamber system was constructed, which would help to research the relationship between the stable alcohol exposure and withdrawal behaviors and to study chronic alcohol exposure-induced disorders in China.
Recently, cognitive impairments (CI) and behavioral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. In the current study, we explored the role of gut microbiota in CI of ALS patients. We collected fecal samples from 35 ALS patients and 35 healthy controls. The cognitive function of the ALS patients was evaluated using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen. We analyzed these samples by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as well as both untargeted and targeted (bile acids) metabolite mapping between patients with CI and patients with normal cognition (CN). We found altered gut microbial communities and a lower ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes in the CI group, compared with the CN group. In addition, the untargeted metabolite mapping revealed that 26 and 17 metabolites significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the CI group, compared with the CN group. These metabolites were mapped to the metabolic pathways associated with bile acids. We further found that cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid were significantly lower in the CI group than in the CN group. In conclusion, we found that the gut microbiota and its metabolome profile differed between ALS patients with and without CI and that the altered bile acid profile in fecal samples was significantly associated with CI in ALS patients. These results need to be replicated in larger studies in the future.
The current study aims to investigate a suitable adhesive for primary tooth enamel. Shear bond strength (SBS) of primary teeth and the length of resin protrusion were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparison tests after etching with 35% H3PO4. SBS and marginal microleakage tests were conducted with Single Bond Universal (SBU)/Single Bond 2 (SB2) adhesives with or without pre-etching using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Clinical investigations were performed to validate the adhesive for primary teeth restoration using Chi-square tests. Results showed that the SBS and length of resin protrusion increased significantly with the etching time. Teeth in the SBU with 35% H3PO4 pre-etching groups had higher bond strength and lower marginal microleakage than those in the SB2 groups. Mixed fractures were more common in the 35% H3PO4 etched 30 s + SB2/SBU groups. Clinical investigations showed significant differences between the two groups in cumulative retention rates at the 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up evaluations, as well as in marginal adaptation, discoloration, and secondary caries at the 12- and 18-month follow-up assessments. Together, pre-etching primary teeth enamel for 30 s before SBU treatment improved clinical composite resin restoration, which can provide a suitable approach for restoration of primary teeth.
Right heart thrombus (RHTh) with concurrent acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare and can seriously destabilize hemodynamics, leading to an emergency situation with high mortality. Diagnosis and treatment of RHTh with acute PE are not yet standardized. There are few reports of acute PE concurrent with RHTh and even less is known about patients with a right heart mural thrombus. For physicians, the diagnostic choice and treatment of these patients are particularly difficult due to the lack of knowledge. Here, we report a rare case of partial mural RHTh (type C RHTh) with acute PE. The mural mass in the right heart was initially diagnosed as atrial myxoma according to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and both pulmonary embolus and the mural mass were completely absorbed after administering Rivaroxiban. This case suggests that TTE alone is insufficient to identify and diagnoses a right heart mural mass such as this. However, novel oral anticoagulants may be effective at alleviating PE with type C RHTh.