• ISSN 16748301
  • CN 32-1810/R

Top Journal Content

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Leishmania donovani whole cell antigen delivered with adjuvants protects against visceral leishmaniasis in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)
Joshua Muli Mutiso, John Chege Macharia, Evans Taracha, Michael Muita Gicheru
2012, 26(1): 8-16. doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(12)60002-5
In a previous immunogenicity and efficacy study in mice, montanide ISA 720 (MISA) was indicated to be a better adjuvant than bacillus calmette guerin vaccine (BCG) for a Leishmania vaccine. In the present study, we report the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) sonicated antigen delivered with alum-BCG (AlBCG), MISA or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in vervet monkeys following intradermal inoculums. Vaccinated and control animals were challenged with virulent L. donovani parasites and the parasitic burden was determined. Only animals vaccinated with alum-BCG adversely reacted to the inoculum by produc-ing ulcerative erythematous skin indurations. Non-parametric ANOVA followed by a post test showed signifi-cantly higher IgG antibodies, and revealed the presence of lymphoproliferative and interferon gamma responses in both AlBCG+Ag and MISA+Ag as compared to the MPLA+Ag or other groups (P < 0.001). We conclude that L. donovani sonicated antigen containing MISA is safe and is associated with protective immune response against Leishmania donovani infection in the vervet monkey model.
2
Induced pluripotent stem cells are induced pluripotent stem cell-like cells
Liting Song, Emanuel Goldman
2015, 29(1): 1-2. doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140166
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Sitagliptin, sitagliptin and metformin, or sitagliptin and amitriptyline attenuate streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic neuropathy in rats
Ashish Kumar Sharma, Akash Sharma, Rita Kumari, Kunal Kishore, Divya Sharma, Bharthu Parthsarthi Srinivasan, Ashok Sharma, Santosh Kumar Singh, Samir Gaur, Vijay Singh Jatav, Prashant Sharma, Varnika Srivastava, Sneha Joshi, Megha Joshi, Prashant Kumar Dhakad, Davender Singh Kanawat, Akanksha Mishra, Anil Sharma, Dharmendra Singh, Ravinder Pal Singh, Himmat Singh Chawda, Rambir Singh, Sachin Kumar Raikwar, Muneem Kumar Kurmi, Pankaj Khatri, Ashutosh Agarwal, Arshee Munajjam
2012, 26(3): 200-210. doi: 10.7555/JBR.26.20110054
Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. Symptoms of the disease include nerve palsy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, diabetic amyotrophy, painful polyneuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. In this study, type 2 diabetes in rats was induced with nicotinamide-streptozotocin. Drug treatment was initiated on the d 15, with the combination regimen of metformin, pioglitazone and glimipiride or metformin and sitagliptin or sitagliptin, amitriptyline and sitagliptin and led to significantly improved glycemic control, increased grip strength and paw jumping response on d 21, 28 and 35 (P < 0.001). Significant increases in blood protein levels and decreases in urinary protein levels were observed in the animals treated with the different regimens on d 21, 28 and 35 (P < 0.001). Combined treatment of streptozotocin and nicotinamide caused marked degeneration of nerve cells, while administration of metformin and sitagliptin showed tissue regeneration and no body weight gain. In conclusion, treatment with sitagliptin and sitagliptin combined with metformin or amitriptyline results in no body weight gain, but causes an increase in grip strength and pain sensitivity, exhibits neural protection, and reverses the alteration of biochemical parameters in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes.
4
Atrial fibrillation
Thomas M. Munger, Li-Qun Wu, Win K. Shen
2014, 28(1): 1-17. doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130191
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia affecting patients today. Disease prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, and is associated with often catastrophic and costly consequences, including heart failure, syncope, dementia, and stroke. Therapies including anticoagulants, anti-arrhythmic medications, devices, and non-pharmacologic procedures in the last 30 years have improved patients' functionality with the disease. Nonetheless, it remains imperative that further research into AF epidemiology, genetics, detection, and treatments continues to push forward rapidly as the worldwide population ages dramatically over the next 20 years.
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Epidural abscess after multiple lumbar punctures for labour epidural catheter placement
Sundeep?S.?Tumber, Hong?Liu
2010, 24(4): 332-335. doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(10)60046-2
Epidural?catheterization?is?routinely?used?by?anaesthesiologists?to?provide?labour?and?post-operative?analgesia.?In?most?cases,?catheter?placement?is?without?serious?side?effects?and?uneventful.?However,?epidural?abscess?is?a?rare?complication?that?may?result?in?severe?morbidity.?We?present?a?case?of?epidural?abscess?after?labour?epidural?catheter?placement?in?a?healthy?36-year-old?female?who?presented?on?post-partum?d?10?with?complaints?of?fever?and?back?pain.?She?was?treated?with?intravenous?antibiotics?and?fully?recovered.
6
Effects of lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 on experimental allergic rhinitis in a murine model
Luping Zhu, Takashi Shimada, Ruoxi Chen, Meiping Lu, Qingzhao Zhang, Wenmin Lu, Min Yin, Tadao Enomoto, Lei Cheng
2012, 26(3): 226-234. doi: 10.7555/JBR.26.20120023
In the current study, we sought to investigate whether lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (LFK), a heat-killed probiotic preparation, attenuated eosinophil influx into the upper airway and had immunomodulatory activity in a murine allergic rhinitis model. Eighteen BALB/c mice were divided into three groups; the ovalbumin (OVA)-sen-sitized/challenged group, which received saline orally for 6 weeks (OVA group), the OVA-sensitized/challenged group, which received LFK orally for 6 weeks (LFK-fed group), and the non-sensitized group, which received saline for 6 weeks (saline control group). Nasal rubbing and sneezing were monitored during the study. After the final challenge, interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-γ, and OVA-specific IgE levels in the sera and splenocyte culture supernatants were determined, eosinophilic infiltrate into the upper airway was quantified, and splenic CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were examined by flow cytometry. We found that nasal rubbing was sig-nificantly reduced in LFK-fed mice compared to the OVA group on d 27 and 35, and sneezing was significantly inhibited by LFK administration for 35 d. LFK-fed mice had significantly less eosinophil influx into the nasal mucosa than the OVA group. There were no significant differences between the LFK-fed group and OVA group in the serum and splenocyte culture supernatant levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and OVA-specific IgE. Interestingly, the LFK-fed mice had a significantly greater percentage of splenic CD4+CD25+ Tregs than OVA group. Our results indicate that oral administration of LFK may alleviate nasal symptoms, reduce nasal eosinophilia, and increase the percentage of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in experimental allergic rhinitis.
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Role of remote sensing, geographic bioinformatics system and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology
Gouri Sankar Bhunia, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Shreekant Kesari,