Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which make up the bulk of mammalian cell membrane phospholipids, are recognized for their importance in metabolic health. Perturbations in the ratio of PC:PE can affect membrane integrity and function, which thus have serious health consequences. Imbalance in the hepatic PC and PE membrane content can be linked to metabolic disturbances such as ER stress, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Given that impaired insulin sensitivity underlies the pathology of many metabolic disorders and skeletal muscle is a significant regulator of energy metabolism, it is likely that aberrant phospholipid metabolism in skeletal muscle affects whole-body insulin sensitivity. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity and mitochondrial function respond to alterations in PC:PE ratio and are associated with glucose homeostasis. Moreover, PC and PE content within the mitochondrial membrane influence mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis and thus, metabolic function. As skeletal muscle phospholipids respond to stimuli such as diet and exercise, understanding the implications of imbalances in PC:PE ratio is of great importance in the face of the rising epidemic of obesity related diseases. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge signifying the links between skeletal muscle PC:PE ratio and insulin sensitivity with respects to PC and PE metabolism, SERCA activity, mitochondrial function and exercise.
Apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ (APOA-Ⅱ) is the second most abundant apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) synthesized mainly by the liver and to a much lesser extent by the intestine. Transgenic mice overexpressing human APOA-Ⅱ present abnormal lipoprotein composition and are prone to atherosclerosis, though in humans the role for APOA-Ⅱ in coronary heart disease remains controversial. Here, we investigated the effects of overexpressed APOA-Ⅱ on HDL structure and function, adipose tissue metabolic activity, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. C57BL/6 mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing human APOA-Ⅱ or a control adenovirus AdGFP, and five days post-infection blood and tissue samples were isolated. APOA-Ⅱ expression resulted in distinct changes in HDL apoproteome that correlated with increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. No effects on cholesterol efflux from RAW 264.7 macrophages were observed. Molecular analyses in white adipose tissue (WAT) indicated a stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation coupled with respiration for ATP production in mice overexpressing APOA-Ⅱ. Finally, overexpressed APOA-Ⅱ improved glucose tolerance of mice but had no effect on the response to exogenously administered insulin. In summary, expression of APOA-Ⅱ in C57BL/6 mice results in pleiotropic effects with respect to HDL functionality, adipose tissue metabolism and glucose utilization, many of which are beneficial to health.
Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathological change of many cardiovascular diseases. β-catenin has been shown to promote fibrosis. However, the precise role of its homolog γ-catenin in the process of fibrosis remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of γ-catenin was significantly decreased in angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ)-induced cardiac fibrosis model, contrary to most reports of β-catenin. Overexpression of γ-catenin in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas knocking down the expression of γ-catenin with siRNA promoted the occurrence of cardiac fibrosis. Mechanistically, γ-catenin could bind to GSK-3β to inhibit the phosphorylation of GSK-3β, therefore preventing cardiac fibrosis. Our study shows that γ-catenin is an important protective factor in cardiac fibrosis, which provides a new potential target for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis.
The objective of this study is to investigate the immune-enhancing ability of viable and heat-killed Weissella cibaria JW15 (JW15) isolated from Kimchi in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The immune effects were evaluated by measuring the production of NO, cytokines, inflammatory enzyme, and activation of NF-κB. Viable JW15 executed higher activity on stimulating the release of TNF-α as well as activating NF-κB compared to that of heat-killed JW15. Additionally, viable and heat-killed JW15 significantly increased the production of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α more than that of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Furthermore, viable JW15 induced higher production of iNOS compared with that of viable LGG. Collectively, our finding indicates that viable JW15 had similar, if not more, immune-enhancing activities as heat-killed JW15. In addition, viable JW15 had higher immune-enhancing activity than commercial strain LGG. Therefore, viable JW15 has the potential to be used as a functional food to improve the host immune response.
The generation of a high-quality egg for reproduction requires faithful segregation of chromosome during oocyte meiosis. Here, we report that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 6 (EML6) is highly expressed in oocytes, and responsible for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes in mice. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that EML6 was predominantly expressed by oocytes in the ovaries. Whole mount immunofluorescent staining showed that EML6 was colocalized with spindle microtubules in oocytes at various stages after meiotic resumption. This specialized localization was disrupted by nocodazole, the microtubule destabilizer, while enhanced by Taxol, a microtubule stabilizing reagent. In vivo knockdown of Eml6 expression by the specific siRNA resulted in chromosome misalignment and alteration in spindle dimension at both metaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ stages, as well as the increased aneuploidy in the mature oocytes. Thus, these data suggest that EML family proteins participate in the control of oocyte meiotic division.
The aim of this study was to prepare camel serum albumin (CSA) nanoparticles using a self-assembly strategy to co-immobilize curcumin (CCM) and doxorubicin (Dox) which was in favor of combined chemotherapy and biomedical applications of bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) CSA. The constructed CSA nanoparticles (CSA-NPs) with the size around 200 nm displayed a high degree of polydispersity and further encapsulation of CCM and Dox caused no apparent morphological changes to the nanocomposite (CCM/Dox CSA-NPs). The synergistic cytotoxic effect of CCM and Dox on cancer cell A549 was observed with the calculated combination index less than 1.0. Moreover, the release kinetic profile of encapsulated drugs showed a concentration dependence of glutathione (GSH) originating from the GSH used in nanoparticle formation to break the intramolecular disulfide bonds. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluations also revealed that CCM/Dox CSA-NPs showed higher cytotoxicity than that of single drug loaded CSA-NPs, which was also validated by high content screen assay. Taken together, the CCM/Dox CSA-NPs with redox-responsive attributes provided an integrated protein-based combinational drug-delivery matrix to exert synergistic effects.
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a leading cause of visual loss in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the molecular mechanism for CNV progression is still unclear. This study aimed to identify CNV-related circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of non-coding RNAs with diverse functions. A total of 117 circRNAs were differentially expressed in the murine CNV model by microarrays. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify the functions of selected circRNAs. The host genes of these circRNAs were predicted to be targeted to neurogenesis (ontology: biological process), proteinaceous extracellular matrix (ECM) (ontology: cellular component), and binding (ontology: molecular function). Differentially expressed circRNAs-mediated regulatory networks were enriched in ECM receptor interaction. Most of the dysregulated circRNAs could potentially bind to five different miRNAs by TargetScan and miRanda. Specifically, circ_15752 was identified in this circRNAs pool which may facilitate vascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, suggesting a critical role in endothelial angiogenesis. Our work suggests that dysregulated circRNAs may be involved in CNV pathogenesis and serve as potential biomarkers for CNV.