• ISSN 16748301
  • CN 32-1810/R

2015 Vol. 29, No. 3

PERSPECTIVE
REVIEW ARTICLES
Schistosoma japonicum, once endemic all the East Asia, remains as a serious public health problem in certain regions. Ectopic egg embryonation in the liver causes granulomatosis and eventually fatal cirrhosis, so that prevention of this process is one of the keys to reduce its mortality. The embryonation requires cholesteryl ester from HDL of the host blood for egg yolk formation, and this reaction is impaired from the abnormal large HDL in genetic cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency. When CETP was expressed in mice that otherwise lack this protein, granulomatosis of the liver was shown increased compared to the wild type upon infection of Schistosoma japonicum. The CETP deficiencies accumulated exclusively in East Asia, from Indochina to Siberia, so that Shistosomiasis can be a screening factor for this accumulation. CD36 related protein (CD36RP) was identified as a protein for this reaction, cloned from the cDNA library of Schistosoma japonicum with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino acids. The antibody against the extracellular loop of CD36RP inhibited cholesteryl ester uptake from HDL and suppressed egg embryonation in culture. Therefore, inhibition of CETP is a potential approach to prevent liver granulomatosis and thereby fatal liver cirrhosis in the infection of Schistosoma japonicum.
As the number of clinical applications of 2-[fluorine 18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) grows, familiarity with the conditions that can be diagnosed by this modality and when relevant pieces of additional information can be obtained becomes increasingly important for both requesting physicians and nuclear medicine physicians or radiologists who interpret the findings. Apart from its heavy use in clinical oncology, FDG PET-CT is widely used in a variety of non-oncologic conditions interconnecting to such disciplines as general internal medicine, infectious diseases, cardiology, neurology, surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, pediatrics, endocrinology, rheumatology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The aim of this review was to summarize the current evidence of FDG PET-CT applications in evaluating non-oncologic pathologies and the relevant information it can add to achieve a final diagnosis.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter that regulates cardiovascular functions. The present study aimed to determine the protective effect of slow-releasing H2S donor GYY4137 on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury and to investigate the possible signaling mechanisms involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GYY4137 at 12.5 mg/(kg?day), 25 mg/(kg?day) or 50 mg/(kg?day) intraperitoneally for 7 days. Then, rats were subjected to 30 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. We found that GYY4137 increased the cardiac ejection fraction and fractional shortening, reduced the ischemia area, alleviated histological injury and decreased plasma creatine kinase after myocardial I/R. Both H2S concentration in plasma and cystathionine-c-lyase (CSE) activity in the myocardium were enhanced in the GYY4137 treated groups. GYY4137 also decreased malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels in serum, attenuated superoxide anion level and suppressed phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases in the myocardium after I/R. Meanwhile, GYY4137 increased the expression of Bcl-2 but decreased the expression of Bax, caspase-3 activity and apoptosis in the myocardium. The data suggest that GYY4137 protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis.
The present study evaluated the in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of diminazene combined with chloroquine as a potential drug against Leishmania donovani. Amphotericin B was used as a positive control drug. In vitro activity involved incubation of various drug concentrations with promastigotes or vero cells in culture before determination of parasite growth inhibition or cell death while in vivo evaluations involved infection of various mice groups with virulent L. donovani parasites and treatment with test drug compounds following disease establishment. Weight changes in experimental mice were also evaluated before infection and throughout the experiment. The results indicated that the diminazene-chloroquine combination was at least nine times more efficacious than individual drugs in killing promastigotes in culture. The diminazene-chloroquine combination was safer (Ld5050.03?0.04) than Amphotericin B (Ld5050.02?0.01). Body weight in infected mice increased significantly (P50.0007) from day 7 to day 37 following infection (P50.026). However, body weight remained comparable in all mice groups during treatment (P50.16). The diminazene-chloroquine combination significantly reduced splenic parasite numbers as compared to individual drug therapies (P50.0001) although Amphotericin B was still more efficacious than any other treatment (P50.0001). Amongst the test compounds, the diminazene-chloroquine combination showed the lowest level of IgG antibody responses with results indicating significant negative correlation between antileishmanial antibody responses and protection against disease. These findings demonstrate the positive advantage and the potential use of a combined therapy of diminazene-chloroquine over the constituent drugs. Further evaluation is recommended to determine the most efficacious combination ratio of the two compounds.
Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n512). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n512). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99mlabeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ? 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ? 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P50.03 and P50.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.
We sought to investigate the expression of Fas and FasL on T cell surface and caspase 8 involvement in T cell apoptosis promoted by serum IL-10 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Cells and sera were obtained from 35 SLE patients. Apoptosis of T cells in patients with SLE was increased and associated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Elevated expression of Fas and FasL on T cell surface contributed to increased apoptosis of T cells. Increased IL-10 in the sera of SLE patients was capable of inducing Fas and FasL expression on CD4+T cell surface, promoting apoptosis of this cell subset. Decreased IL-10 serum levels and low expression of Fas were found in 5 patients of the first follow-up group after 2-month treatment. In another group with one-year treatment, the SLEDAI declined to inactive scores. Serum IL-10 was decreased significantly, and expression of Fas and FasL on T cells was also reduced. Declined apoptosis was predominant only in CD4+T cell subset. When sera with high level of IL-10 were used to culture PBMCs from healthy controls, activated caspase 8 was elevated in CD3+T, CD4+T and CD8+T cells. The study showed that serum IL-10 induced apoptosis of T cell subsets via the caspase 8 pathway initiated by Fas signaling. Increased apoptosis of T cells contributes to autoantigen burden, which is pathogenic in the development of SLE.
Post-ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) is a pathological form of plasticity that was observed in glutamate receptor-mediated neurotransmission after stroke and may exert a detrimental effect via facilitating excitotoxic damage. The mechanism underlying i-LTP, however, remains less understood. By employing electrophysiological recording and immunofluorescence assay on hippocampal slices and cultured neurons, we found that protein kinase Mf (PKMf), an atypical protein kinase C isoform, was involved in enhancing aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) expression after i-LTP induction. PKMf knockdown attenuated postsynaptic expression of AMPA receptors and disrupted i-LTP. Consistently, we observed less neuronal death of cultured hippocampal cells with PKMf knockdown. Meanwhile, these findings indicate that PKMf plays an important role in i-LTP by regulating postsynaptic expression of AMPA receptors. This work adds new knowledge to the mechanism of i-LTP,and thus is helpful to find the potential target for clinical therapy of ischemic stroke.
Accumulating studies have proved that perinatal exposure to environmental dose causes long-term potentiation in anxiety/depression-related behaviors in rats. Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent biological findings in anxiety- and depression-related disorders. The HPA axis is reported to be susceptible to developmental reprogramming. The present study focused on HPA reactivity in postnatal day (PND) 80 male rats exposed perinatally to environmental-dose BPA. When female breeders were orally administered 2 mg/(kg.day) BPA from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, their offspring (PND 80 BPA-exposed rats) showed obvious anxiety/depression-like behaviors. Notably, significant increase in serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA were detected in BPA-exposed rats before or after the mild stressor. Additionally, the level of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the hippocampus, but not the hypothalamus, was decreased in BPA-exposed rats. The levels of hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein were increased in BPA-exposed rats. In addition, the testosterone level was in BPA-exposed rats. The results indicate that reprogramming-induced hyperactivity of the HPA axis is an important link between perinatal BPA exposure and persistent potentiation in anxiety and depression.
LETTER