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Hui Li, Yang Chen, Jianqin Niu, Chenju Yi. New insights into the immunologic role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in demyelination diseases[J]. The Journal of Biomedical Research. doi: 10.7555/JBR.36.20220016
Citation: Hui Li, Yang Chen, Jianqin Niu, Chenju Yi. New insights into the immunologic role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in demyelination diseases[J]. The Journal of Biomedical Research. doi: 10.7555/JBR.36.20220016

New insights into the immunologic role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in demyelination diseases

doi: 10.7555/JBR.36.20220016
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  • Oligodendrocyte lineage cells (OL-lineage cells) are a cell population that are crucial for mammalian central nervous system (CNS) myelination. OL-lineage cells go through developmental stages, initially differentiating into oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), before becoming immature oligodendrocytes, then mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). While the main function of cell lineage is in myelin formation, and increasing number of studies have turned to explore the immunological characteristics of these cells. Initially, these studies focused on discovering how OPCs and OLs are affected by the immune system, and then, how these immunological changes influence the myelination process. However, recent studies have uncovered another feature of OL-lineage cells in our immune systems. It would appear that OL-lineage cells also express immunological factors such as cytokines and chemokines in response to immune activation, and the expression of these factors changes under various pathologic conditions. Evidence suggests that OL-lineage cells actually modulate immune functions. Indeed, OL-lineage cells appear to play both "victim" and "agent" in the CNS which raises a number of questions. Here, we summarize immunologic changes in OL-lineage cells and their effects, as well as consider OL-lineage cell changes which influence immune cells under pathological conditions. We also describe some of the underlying mechanisms of these changes and their effects. Finally, we describe several studies which use OL-lineage cells as immunotherapeutic targets for demyelination diseases.

     

  • △These authors contributed equally to this work.
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