Emerging pathways of communication between the heart and non-cardiac organs
- Available Online: 2018-03-01
Abstract: The breakthrough discovery of cardiac natriuretic peptides provided the first direct demonstration of the connection between the heart and the kidneys for the maintenance of sodium and volume homeostasis in health and disease. Yet, little is still known about how the heart and other organs cross-talk. Here, we review three physiological mechanisms of communication linking the heart to other organs through: i) cardiac natriuretic peptides, ii) the microRNA-208a/ mediator complex subunit-13 axis and iii) the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)/C-C motif chemokine ligand-7/ cardiac secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) axis – a pathway which likely applies to the many cytokines, which are cleaved and regulated by MMP-2. We also suggest experimental strategies to answer still open questions on the latter pathway. In short, we review evidence showing how the cardiac secretome influences the metabolic and inflammatory status of non-cardiac organs as well as the heart.