Role of inflammasome regulation on immune modulators
- Received Date: 2017-11-18
- Accepted Date: 2017-12-08
- Available Online: 2018-11-28
Abstract: Inflammatory responses are essential in eliminating harmful substrates from damaged tissue and inducing recovery. Several cytokines participate in and facilitate this response. Certain cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are initially produced in precursor form in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and undergo maturation by inflammasomes, which are cytosolic multi-protein complexes containing nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein 2-like receptors (NLRs). Immune modulators targeting inflammasomes have been investigated to control inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome. However, most immune modulators possessing anti-inflammasome properties attenuate production of other cytokines, which are essential for host defense. In this review, we analyzed he effect of anti-inflammasome agents on the production of cytokines which are not regulated by inflammasome and involving in initial immune responses. As a result, the inflammasome inhibitors are put into three categories: non-effector, stimulator, or inhibitor of cytokine production. Even the stimulator of cytokine production ameliorated symptoms resulting from inflammasome activation in mouse models. Thus, we suggest ideal immune modulators targeting inflammasomes in order to enhance cytokine production while inhibiting cytokine maturation.