Pretreatment with simvastatin upregulates expression of BK-2R and CD11b in the ischemic penumbra of rats
- Received Date: 2017-03-13
- Accepted Date: 2017-07-24
- Available Online: 2018-09-29
Abstract: Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductases, collectively known as statins, have been shown to minimize cerebral ischemic events in patients. We assessed the mechanisms of simvastatin pretreatment in preventing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were pretreated with simvastatin 14 days prior to MCAO induction. At 3, 24, and 48 hours after reperfusion, bradykinin levels in the ischemic penumbra were assayed by ELISA, mRNA levels of bradykinin B2 receptors (BK-2Rs) and CD11b were measured by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and co-expression of microglia and BK-2Rs was determined by immunofluorescence. Simvastatin had no effect on bradykinin expression in the ischemic penumbra at any time point. However, the levels of BK-2R and CD11b mRNA in the ischemic penumbra, which were significantly decreased 3 hours after ischemia-reperfusion, were increased in simvastatin-pretreated rats. Moreover, the co-expression of BK-2Rs and microglia was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of simvastatin pretreatment before cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats may be partially due to increased expression of BK-2R and CD11b in the ischemic penumbra.