• ISSN 16748301
  • CN 32-1810/R
Volume 32 Issue 4
Apr.  2018
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Citation:

2-Methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine, an edaravone analog, exerts neuroprotective effects against acute ischemic injury via inhibiting oxidative stress

  • Received Date: 2018-02-01
    Accepted Date: 2018-03-13

    Fund Project: This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (31530091,91232304), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1306703) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20140905),and by the Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular Disease Translational Medicine. We thank Nanjing Zhongrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. for the technical assistance.

  • Oxidative stress plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Inhibiting oxidative stress has been considered as an effective approach for stroke treatment. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to prevent cerebral ischemic injury. However, the clinical efficacy of edaravone is limited because it has a low scavenging activity for superoxide anions (O2$–). Here, we report that 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3] oxazin-5-imine, a novel small-molecule compound structurally related to edaravone, showed a stronger inhibitory effect on oxidative stress in vitro. In vivo, 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine reversed transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced dysfunctions of superoxide dismutases and malondialdehyde, two proteins crucial for oxidative stress,suggesting a strengthened antioxidant system. Moreover, 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d] pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine decreased blood brain barrier permeability. Then, we found that 2-methyl-5Hbenzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine had a stronger neuroprotective effect than edaravone. More importantly, 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine decreased not only infarct size and neurological deficits in the acute phase but also modified neurological severity score and escape latency in Morris water maze task in the delayed period, indicating enhanced neuroprotection, sensorimotor function and spatial memory. Together, thesevfindings suggest that 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine could be a preferable option for stroke treatment.
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2-Methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine, an edaravone analog, exerts neuroprotective effects against acute ischemic injury via inhibiting oxidative stress

  • 1. Institution of Stem Cells and Neuroregeneration
  • 2.  Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166,China.
  • 3.  Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University
  • 4. The Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine of Cardiovascular Disease, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166,China.
Fund Project:  This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (31530091,91232304), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1306703) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20140905),and by the Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular Disease Translational Medicine. We thank Nanjing Zhongrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. for the technical assistance.

Abstract: Oxidative stress plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Inhibiting oxidative stress has been considered as an effective approach for stroke treatment. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to prevent cerebral ischemic injury. However, the clinical efficacy of edaravone is limited because it has a low scavenging activity for superoxide anions (O2$–). Here, we report that 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3] oxazin-5-imine, a novel small-molecule compound structurally related to edaravone, showed a stronger inhibitory effect on oxidative stress in vitro. In vivo, 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine reversed transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced dysfunctions of superoxide dismutases and malondialdehyde, two proteins crucial for oxidative stress,suggesting a strengthened antioxidant system. Moreover, 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d] pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine decreased blood brain barrier permeability. Then, we found that 2-methyl-5Hbenzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine had a stronger neuroprotective effect than edaravone. More importantly, 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine decreased not only infarct size and neurological deficits in the acute phase but also modified neurological severity score and escape latency in Morris water maze task in the delayed period, indicating enhanced neuroprotection, sensorimotor function and spatial memory. Together, thesevfindings suggest that 2-methyl-5H-benzo[d]pyrazolo[5,1-b][1,3]oxazin-5-imine could be a preferable option for stroke treatment.

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