Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity in adults.. How-ever, no large scale study on the prevalence of LBW and related maternal risk factors in China has been published. To explore the effects of maternal factors on LBW for term birth in China, we conducted a hospital-based retrospective study of 55, 633 Chinese pregnancy cases between 2001 and 2008. Maternal sociodemographic data, history of infer-tility and contraceptive use were obtained. Their medical status and diseases during pre-pregnancy were examined by physical examination at the first antenatal care visit. Maternal medical status before childbirth and pregnancy outcomes, including body weight, infant gender, multiple pregnancy and congenital anomalies, were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and linear regression were used to investigate the relationship be-tween maternal factors and term LBW. The general incidence of term LBW was 1.70% in the developed area of China. After preliminary analysis using the univariate model, low primary education, anemia, hypertensive disor-ders, placental previa, oligohydramnios and premature rupture of membrane were predicted as independent factors of term LBW in the multivariate model. Furthermore, the decrease in annual frquencies of these risk factors were major causes of gradual decline in the incidence of LBW (from 2.43% in 2001 to 1.21% in 2008). The study dem-onstrated that among maternal factors, primary education, anemia and hypertensive disorders could contribute to LBW for term birth even in the most developed area of China.