2019 Vol. 33, No. 6
Cell death in the living system plays a vital role in maintaining the homeostasis and balancing the cell count in the body. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial component of several development and defense mechanisms. PCD is also important in terms of aging which avoids the accumulation of cellular damage by maintaining cell division. Depending on the execution of cell death and its role in destruction, PCD is categorized into several subtypes. The major different forms of PCD in animals are apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis, which can be distinct in morphological terms. More intense investigations of cell death have given close insight showing other important types of cellular destruction and their pivotal roles in treating disease conditions like cancer. Flavonoids have been acquired a great interest for disease therapies and chemoprevention through activation of several PCD mechanisms. The significant potential of natural flavonoids in the induction of distinct signaling cascades is being a massive approach for targeting uncontrolled cell growth. For these reasons, understanding PCD mechanisms is a promising approach for the interventions in treating cancer. Thus, it is intriguing that understanding the different forms of PCD mechanism induced by flavonoids with more accurate descriptions on the biochemical and cellular processes are gaining more significance in cancer research. Here, we provide a brief overview on the different types of PCD and aim to discuss the functional role of flavonoids in promoting different types of cell death as well as an extensive brief review on their mechanism of action has been highlighted.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant gastrointestinal tumors whose morbidity and mortality account for the second and third place respectively in malignant tumors in China. As an important participant in tumor biology, the abnormal expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) in cancer cells is closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors and plays the role of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA NFIA antisense RNA 1 (NFIA-AS1) and explored its role and clinical significance in gastric cancer. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the expression of NFIA-AS1 in tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues from 42 pairs of gastric cancer samples. The lower expression of NFIA-AS1 was significantly associated with larger tumor size, lower histological grade, and advanced TNM stage. Kaplan-meier analysis showed that NFIA-AS1 expression could be used as an independent predictor of overall survival. We also demonstrated that overexpression of NFIA-AS1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells through affecting p16 levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that the lncRNA NFIA-AS1 may play the role of tumor suppressor gene, and serve as a biomarker for prognosis or progression of gastric cancer.
Many evidences showed that drug resistance of gastric cancer cells could be regulated by the abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Thus, we investigated the role of miR-3622b-5p in the development of cisplatin (DDP) resistance in human gastric cancer cell lines. A set of biochemical assays were used to elucidate the mechanism by which miR-3622b-5p regulates drug resistance in cancer cells. The expression of miR-3622b-5p was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and showed that miR-3622b-5p was significantly downregulated in the plasma of patients with acquired drug resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy for gastric cancer. miR-3622b-5p was also found significantly downregulated in DDP-resistant gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/DDP, compared with the parental SGC7901 cells. An in vitro drug sensitivity assay showed that overexpression of miR-3622b-5p sensitized SGC7901/DDP cells to DDP. The luciferase activity of reporters constructed by BIRC5 3′-untranslated regions in SGC7901/DDP cells suggested that BIRC5 was target gene of miR-3622b-5p. Ecpotic miR-3622b-5p expression in SGC7901/DDP cells significantly repressed the expression of the BIRC5 and sensitized the cells to DDP-induced apoptosis. By contrast, treatment with miR-3622b-5p inhibitor increased the protein expression of BIRC5 and led to a lower proportion of apoptotic cells in the SGC7901 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miR-3622b-5p regulates DDP resistance of human gastric cancer cells at least in part by repressing the expression of BIRC5. Altering miR-3622b-5p expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chemoresistance in gastric cancer in the future.
The interleukin-11 (IL-11) and the IL-11 receptor α-subunit (IL-11Rα) have been demonstrated to regulate the invasion and proliferation of tumor cells. Our study intends to evaluate a noninvasive imaging of IL-11Rα expression in breast tumors using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye Cy7-labeled IL-11 mimic peptide CGRRAGGSC. This work evaluated the IL-11Rα expression of breast tumor cells and the binding status of this peptide to IL-11Rα in vitro and in vivo by using Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Our biochemical study showed that IL-11Rα was overexpressed in breast tumor cells (MCF-7). The cell-binding assay demonstrated specific binding of peptide CGRRAGGSC to MCF-7 cells in vitro. In vivo imaging results showed that NIR fluorescent signals of Cy7-CGRRAGGSC were selectively accumulated in tumor and metabolic organs. While in the blocking experiment, free CGRRAGGSC obviously blocked the concentration of the Cy7-CGRRAGGSC in the tumors. These results suggested that IL-11Rα may be used as a potential target for noninvasive imaging in IL-11Rα overexpressed tumors. Furthermore, the imaging agent of near-infrared fluorescent dye Cy7-labeled CGRRAGGSC is suitable for IL-11Rα expression imaging study in vivo.
Influenza-like illness (ILI) is an acute respiratory infection caused by various pathogens. However, the epidemiologic characteristics of ILI pathogens in Jiangsu province are unclear. To better understand the ILI etiology, the characteristics of the pathogens from nasopharyngeal swab samples of patients with ILI collected from 2012 to 2016 in 6 hospitals in Jiangsu province were studied. The pathogens, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus (ADV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human coronavirus (hCoV), Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were detected by real-time PCR. At least one pathogen was identified in 1 334 of the patients (40.23%). Among viruses, HRV, influenza A virus (Flu A), ADV and RSV were the most frequently detected. ADV was the only pathogen that was distributed evenly in different years and regions (P>0.05). The etiological distribution varied in different age groups. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen in co-infections with a co-detection rate of 64.57% (319/494). The spectrum of etiologies could help to estimate disease burden and provide guidance for vaccination.
This survey was designed to assess the sanitation status of hospitals and the compliance of hospital staff to disinfection strategies within the past 11 years. A total of 199 provincial affiliated tertiary or secondary public hospitals from 2007 to 2017 were investigated and seven critical categories, namely indoor air, work surface, hand hygiene, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation intensity, use of disinfectants, sterilization of medical items, and effects of steam sterilizer, were monitored. The average qualified rates were (94.74±3.54)% (810/855), (97.25±1.65)% (1 876/1 929), (87.57±4.60)% (2 508/2 864), (95.00±4.50)% (1 196/1 259), and (98.76±1.14)% (1 599/1 619) for indoor air, work surface, hand hygiene, UV irradiation intensity, and sterilization of medical items, respectively. In terms of other categories, a few samples were not qualified: 3/1 575 for use of disinfectants and 1/243 for effects of steam sterilizer. The hospital disinfection monitoring and supervision program effectively improved the effectiveness of disinfection. Routine monitoring and supervision must be conducted to ensure a safe hospital treatment environment.
Airborne particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5, can be easily adsorbed by human respiratory system. Their roles in carrying pathogens for spreading epidemic diseases has attracted great concern. Herein, we developed a novel gelatin filter-based and culture-independent method for investigation of the microbial diversity in PM samples during a haze episode in Tianjin, China. This method involves particle capture by gelatin filters, filter dissolution for DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing for analysis of the microbial diversity. A total of 584 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria and 370 OTUs of fungi at the genus level were identified during hazy days. The results showed that both bacterial and fungal diversities could be evaluated by this method. This study provides a convenient strategy for investigation of microbial biodiversity in haze, facilitating accurate evaluation of airborne epidemic diseases.
The extent to which factors affect the probability of clinical pregnancy in the first fresh embryo transfer after assisted conception is unknown. In order to examine the predictors of clinical pregnancy, a retrospective cohort study was launched between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016 in four infertility clinics including 19 837 in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) fresh cycles with known outcomes and relevant records. A multivariable logistic regression was used to select the most significant predictors in the final nomogram for predicting clinical pregnancy. Furthermore, the model was validated by an independent validation set and the performance of the model was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves along with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and calibration plots. In a training set including 17 854 participants, we identified that female age, tubal factor, number of embryos transferred, endometrial thickness and number of good-quality embryos were independent predictors for clinical pregnancy. We developed a nomogram using these five factors and the predictive ability was 0.66 for AUC (95% CI 0.64–0.68), which was independently validated in the validation set (AUC=0.66, 95% CI 0.65–0.68). Our results show that some specific factors can be used to provide infertile couples with an accurate assessment of clinical pregnancy following assisted conception and facilitate to guide couples and clinicians.
Conjunctive use of anesthetic agents results in drug interactions which can alter or influence multiple patient outcomes such as anesthesia depth, and cardiorespiratory parameters which can also be altered by patient conditions and surgical procedures. Using artificial intelligence technology to continuously gather data of drug infusion and patient outcomes, we can generate reliable computer models individualized for a patient during specific stages of particular surgical procedures. This data can then be used to extend the current anesthesia monitoring functions to include future impact prediction, drug administration planning, and anesthesia decisions.